Learning rsync

rsync_logorsync is a widely-used utility to keep copies of a file on two computer systems. It is commonly found on Unix-like systems and functions as both afile synchronization and file transfer program. The rsync algorithm, a type of delta encoding, is used to minimize network usage. Zlib may be used for additional compression, and SSH or stunnel can be used for data security.

How to use ‘cp’ command to exclude a specific directory?

I found rsync when I was trying to copy all files except “x” and “y” files and directories. You are able to do that as following:

rsync -av --progress sourcefolder /destinationfolder --exclude thefoldertoexclude

Notice that you can add many –excludes like:

rsync -av --progress sourcefolder /destinationfolder --exclude thefoldertoexclude --exclude anotherfoldertoexclude

Found some great samples by Ramesh Natarajan I have copied few below with a link to more samples.

Example 1. Synchronize Two Directories in a Local Server

To sync two directories in a local computer, use the following rsync -zvr command.

$ rsync -zvr /var/opt/installation/inventory/ /root/temp

In the above rsync example:

  • -z is to enable compression
  • -v verbose
  • -r indicates recursive

Example 2. Preserve timestamps during Sync using rsync -a


rsync option -a indicates archive mode. -a option does the following,

  • Recursive mode
  • Preserves symbolic links
  • Preserves permissions
  • Preserves timestamp
  • Preserves owner and group

Now, executing the same command provided in example 1 (But with the rsync option -a) as shown below:

$ rsync -azv /var/opt/installation/inventory/ /root/temp/

Example 3. Synchronize Only One File

To copy only one file, specify the file name to rsync command, as shown below.

$ rsync -v /var/lib/rpm/Pubkeys /root/temp/

More samples at:


How to Backup Linux? 15 rsync Command Examples

6 rsync Examples to Exclude Multiple Files and Directories using exclude-from

Essential Run and PowerShell Commands for Web Developer on Windows

Just like Windows 8, Windows 2012 Server does not have start menu anymore. Therefore I have had to learn to memorize few commands to get around on the server. Here comes a list of Run and PowerShell Commands that I am using the most.


Run /  Command Line Commands

appwiz.cpl Add/Remove Programs
control Control Panel
cmd or cmd.exe Command Prompt
Downloads Opens download folder
diskmgmt.msc Disk Management
diskpart Disk Parmelonion Manager
desk.cpl Display Properties
dpiscaling DPI Scaling
control folders Folders Properties
gpedit.msc Group Policy Editor
iexplore Internet Explorer
firefox Firefox
control keyboard Keyboard Properties
control netconnections
Network Connections
notepad Notepad? ;)
osk On Screen Keyboard
perfmon Performance Monitor
regedit.exe Registry Editor
msinfo32 System Information
msconfig System Configuration Utility
taskmgr Task Manager
firewall.cpl Windows Firewall
control userpasswords2 Open password manager
InetMgr.exe Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager 7
InetMgr6.exe Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager 6
mstsc.exe Remote Desktop Connection
netstat Network Statistics
net statistics Check computer up time
net stop Stops a running service. i.e. net stop iisadmin /y
net use Connects a computer to or disconnects a computer from a shared resource, displays information about computer connections, or mounts a local share with different privileges
runas Run specific tools and programs with different permissions than the user’s current logon provides
ping Determine whether a remote computer is accessible over the network
tracert Trace route
taskkill terminate tasks by process id (PID) or image name
start Starts a separate window to run a specified program or command.
start . opens the current directory in the Windows Explorer.
shutdown.exe Shutdown or Reboot a local/remote machine
ipconfig try ipconfig /flushdns


Full reference can be found here also worth of checking out is Useful Command-line Commands on Windows at Serverfault.com



Command Result
Get-Help Example: Get-Help -Name Get-Process
Set-ExecutionPolicy You can use the Set-ExecutionPolicy command to control the level of security surrounding PowerShell scripts.
Set-ExecutionPolicy Unrestricted
Get-ExecutionPolicy C:\PS>set-executionpolicy RemoteSigned; get-executionPolicy
Stop-Service and Start-Service Start/Stop service on local computer: 

PS C:\> Stop-Service -Name Spooler
PS C:\> Start-Service -Name Spooler

Start/Stop service on remote computer:

PS C:\> $ServiceObj = Get-Service -ComputerName MyPC1 -Name spooler
PS C:\> Stop-Service -InputObj $ServiceObj
PS C:\> Start-Service -InputObj $ServiceObj

Get-Process and Stop-Process